It’s a stereotype, but many of us have made the assumption that scientists are a bit rigid and less artistic than others. Artists, on the other hand, are often seen as being less rational than the rest of us. Sometimes described as the left side of the brain versus the right side—or simply logical thinking versus artistic creativity—the two are often seen as polar opposites.
Neuroscience has already shown1 that everyone uses both sides of the brain when performing any task. And while certain patterns of brain activity have sometimes been linked been linked2 to artistic or logical thinking, it doesn’t really explain who is good at what—and why. That’s because the exact interplay of nature and nurture is notoriously difficult to tease out. But if we put the brain aside for a while and just focus on documented ability, is there any evidence to support the logic versus art stereotype?
Psychological research has approached this question by distinguishing between two styles of thinking: convergent and divergent. The emphasis in convergent thinking is on analytical and deductive reasoning, such as that measured in IQ tests. Divergent thinking, however, is more spontaneous and free-flowing. It focuses on novelty and is measured by tasks requiring us to generate multiple solutions for a problem. An example may be thinking of new, innovative uses for familiar objects3.
Studies conducted during the 1960s suggested that convergent thinkers were more likely to be good at science subjects4 at school. Divergent thinking was shown to be morecommon in the arts and humanities5.
However, we are increasingly learning that convergent and divergent thinking styles need not be mutually exclusive. In 2011, researchers assessed 116 final-year UK arts and science undergraduates6 on measures of convergent and divergent thinking and creative problem solving. The study found no difference in ability between the arts and science groups on any of these measures. Another study reported no significant difference7 in measures of divergent thinking between arts, natural science and social science undergraduates. Both arts and natural sciences students, however, rated themselves as being more creative than social sciences students did.
Going With the Flow
Studies have actually revealed considerable overlap in the cognitive processes supporting both scientific and artistic creativity. The psychological concept of ‘flow,’ pioneered by Mihály Csíkszentmihályi8 in the 1990s, describes a state of consciousness where one is completely absorbed and energised while performing an activity. Flow experience has beenstrongly linked to peak performance in many artistic and creative domains.
Research in my own group has investigated flow during visual creativity, finding that the experience can be increased by a positive mood9. We also found that people who experienced flow were more likely to rate their own productions as being creative. However, flow is not restricted to artistic pursuits. It can also be experienced during activities focused on science. One study asked junior scientists to collaborate on dictating a research article and half of those participatingreported that they experienced flow-like states10 during the dictation process.
There is also substantial overlap in the use of visualisation and mental imagery during scientific and artistic thinking11.Great scientists such as Albert Einstein12, Michael Faraday13 and Nikola Tesla14 all reported that they used mental imagery when describing their thought processes. Studies have also found that mental imagery plays a central role15 during the construction and evaluation of many scientific ‘thought experiments,’ in which a scientist mentally assesses the implications of a particular hypothesis.
Perhaps more obviously, such mental imagery also features strongly in musical composition16, painting17 and architectural design18.
The Power of Stereotyping
Convergent and divergent thinking abilities aren’t necessarily innate. A recent study19 on creative stereotypes asked individuals to complete a divergent thinking task while adopting the perspective of either an ‘eccentric poet’ or a ‘rigid librarian.’
Those who imagined being an ‘eccentric poet’ performed significantly better on the creative task than those who imagined being a ‘rigid librarian,’ suggesting that the activation of stereotypical views on creative thinking can enhance or inhibit individuals’ performance.
Despite such preconceptions of the ways in which logical and unstructured thinking styles are related to creativity, it is not difficult to find examples of individuals who do not fit the stereotype. Albert Einstein was a keen musician who enjoyed playing the piano and violin while Nobel Prize-winner Richard Fenyman worked as an artist20 using the pseudonym ‘Ofey.’ Musicians Brian May, Brian Cox and Greg Graffin all completed science PhDs.
Case studies of scientists engaging in art and vice versa are often presented as being unusual. However, psychologists recently conducted a comprehensive review of the extent to which Nobel Prize winners in the sciences, members of the Royal Society and US National Academy of Sciences, and members of the US public reported engaging in arts and crafts-based pursuits21. They found that members of the Royal Society and National Academy of Sciences were almost twice as likely to report engaging in arts and crafts pursuits as the general public. Eminent Nobel laureate scientists were almost three times more likely to report such activities.
These findings clearly show that the stereotypical view that scientists and other logical thinkers are less likely to be artistic or creative fall wide of the mark. As Einstein himself noted: ‘The greatest scientists are artists as well22.’
David Pearson joined Anglia Ruskin University as Reader in Cognitive Psychology in 2015, having previously worked at the University of Aberdeen and the University of the Saarland in Germany. He is a Chartered Psychologist and Associate Fellow of the British Psychological Society, and a member of the Experimental Psychology Society.
David’s research is focused on understanding the cognitive processes involved during memory, mental imagery and visuo-spatial thinking, with a particular focus on applications in the fields of clinical and environmental psychology. Recent projects have examined the role of visuo-spatial working memory and imagery during visual creativity, the involvement of mental imagery and working memory in different clinical disorders, and assessing the mental health benefits of viewing and interacting with natural environments.
This article is republished from The Conversation under a Creative Commons license. Read the original article. https://theconversation.com/exploding-the-myth-of-the-scientific-vs-artistic-mind-57843
3 Gilhooly, K.J., Fioratou, E., Anthony, S.H., Wynn, V. ‘Divergent thinking: Strategies and executive involvement in generating novel uses for familiar objects.’ British Journal of Psychology Vol. 98, No.4., 2007, p. 611-625.
4 Biggs, John B., Collis, Kevin F. (1981) Evaluating the Quality of Learning: The SOLO Taxonomy (Structure of the Observed Learning Outcome). Amsterdam: Elsevier.
5 Mackay, C.K., Cameron, Marion B. ‘Cognitive Bias in Scottish First-Year Science and Arts Undergraduates.’ British Journal of Educational Psychology Vol 38, Issue 3, 1968, pp 315-318,
6 Williamson, Peter K. ‘The creative problem solving skills of arts and science students—The two cultures debate revisited.’ Thinking Skills and Creativity Vol 6, Issue 1, 2011, pp. 31-43.
7 Furnham, Adrian, Batey, Mark, Booth, W. Tom, Patel, Vikita, Lozinskaya, Dariyal
‘Individual difference predictors of creativity in Art and Science students.’ Thinking Skills and Creativity Vol 6, Issue 2, 2011, pp. 114-121.
8 Csíkszentmihályi, Mihály (2002) Flow: The Psychology of Happiness. London: Rider
9 Cseh, Genevieve M., Phillips, Louise H., Pearson, David G. ‘Flow, affect and visual creativity.’ Cognition and Emotion Vol 29, Issue 2, 2015.
10 Spanager, Lene, Kjaergaaed Danielson, Anne, Burcharth, Jakob, Rosenberg, Jacob ‘A feeling of flow: exploring junior scientists’ experiences with dictation of scientific articles.’ BMC Medical Education, Vol 13, article no 106, 2013.
11 Pearson, David G. (2012) ‘Mental Imagery and Creative Thought’ in Imaginative Minds, Ed Ilona Roth.https://britishacademy.universitypressscholarship.com/view/10.5871/bacad/9780197264195.001.0001/upso-9780197264195-chapter-9
12 Gardner Howard. (1994) Creating Minds: An Anatomy of Creativity as Seen Through the Lives of Freud, Einstein, Picasso, Stravinsky, Eliot, Graham, and Gandhi. New York: Basic Books, Reprint edition.
13 James, Frank, A.J.L. (2010) Michael Faraday: A Very Short Introductio. Oxford: OUP
14 Miller, Arthur I. (2012) Insights of Genius: Imagery and Creativity in Science and Art. Berlin: Springer Science & Business Media.
15 Clement, John J. ‘The Role of Imagistic Simulation in Scientific Thought Experiments.’ Top Cogn Sc Vol 1, Issue 4, 2009, pp 686-710.
16 Croom Adam M. ‘Music, Neuroscience, and the Psychology of Well-Being: A Précis.’ Front Psychol Vol 2: 393, 2011
18 Purcell, A.T., Gero, J.S. ‘Drawings and the design process: A review of protocol studies in design and other disciplines and related research in cognitive psychology.’ Design Studies Vol. 19, Issue 4, 1998, pp 389-430.