Recent controversies in Kansas, Ohio, Pennsylvania and other states over the teaching of evolution have raised fundamental questions about science, its public image and its role in a religious society. Although debate has focused on our nation’s constitutional disestablishment of religion, the underlying issues are far broader. How is science related to religion and morality? Can scientists and religious authorities cooperate in educating the public about the content and limits of scientific knowledge, or are they separated by contrary views of what knowledge is? What are the role and responsibility of religious scientists in such conversations?